By Emmett A. Conway, Sr., The Olde Forester

Killed at ye Salt Licks on Siota 
Matthew McCrea
William McGuire

    "Matthew McCrea, trading to Salt Licks Shawnese, killed or taken at Salt Licks; servants killed or taken, four at Shawnese town"
Found in Ohio University Library
From Col. Bouquet's Reports in British Museum (1763-1764) 



Jackson, Ohio, is the site of  ancient and historic salt-making activity. In 1976 the area became a subject of concern to consultants for the city because planned expansion of the waste water treatment plant might adversely impact this neglected and unrecognized historical and archaeological site. As a result, The Olde Forester was asked to do the literature research which recorded the activities surrounding the availability of salt in the vicinity. The following is his report which he submitted in February, 1977:

The City of Jackson was "The Center of Early Salt Boiling" -- as this historic marker on the city limits once declared.  There is considerable historical importance attached to the making of salt, and one would wonder where and how this took place.

    While white salt boilers found that they could obtain salt water by digging wells in the alluvium along Salt Lick Creek for a distance of four miles above and below Jackson, there were but two principal locations thought worth recording by the federal land surveyors in 1798.  A plat map found at the Jackson County Engineer's Office and, also, at the Auditor's Office of the State of Ohio shows two easily-located sites called, "Salt Springs." (Ref. 1)
Original map of the center of the Scioto Salt Reserve as mapped by Eli Langham, 1798, by order of congress, 1796.
    One of the "Salt Springs" is shown to be in Section 19 on the north side of the meander.

    The other "Salt Springs" shown on the 1798 plat map made by Elias Langham was in the north end of the east half of Section 29 and specifically spotted along the north bank of Salt Lick Creek and east of the mouth of Sugar run.  These springs would have been "At the foot of Broadway" as described by early historians and on the site now occupied by the city light plant, equipment parking lot and an active city dump.

    There are a surprising number of references to the "Scioto Salt Springs" and "Scioto Salt Works" as they were known to the Native Americans, traders, and settlers until their decline about 1816.  At that time “SALT LICK TOWN” became Jackson, Ohio. It is the purpose of the writer to present a wide variety of authentic observations and data on the way the salt springs at Jackson filled the need for salt--the most needed and most scarce commodity on the frontier.

    Salt springs were a natural gathering place for grazing animals.  These attracted the carnivores.  Both attracted the Native Americans for meat as well as salt.  The Scioto Licks at Jackson exhibited all the characteristics of this activity, having been available for countless centuries--even preceding the Glacial Period when extinct animals inhabited the region.  The impact of European colonization led to its demise.  Now increasing urbanization is threatening the final destruction of what remains of the Scioto Licks.


    To appreciate the importance and significance of the Scioto Salt Springs, one has to think back beyond 160 years  before salt became a common item.  Back to the time when people had to rely on natural flowing salt springs at inland locations or transport salt from seaside or saline lakes.  Successful drilling for richer brines about 1810 marked an end to the boiling of weak surface salt springs.

Prehistoric Mammals

    The Scioto Salt Springs are but thirty miles from the glacial front and behind a range of hills which would have provided somewhat of a barrier to the chilling ice.  This fact plus the availability of low arctic vegetation and the salt springs made conditions favorable for the survival of prehistoric mammals.
    Extensive research in Kentucky at Big Bone Licks has related the above condition to the common occurrence of these extinct creatures who left their bones engulfed in the mud, clay, and gravel at their common meeting grounds--the salt licks. Among the animals listed are:  mammoths, mastodons, peccaries, tapirs, Arctic bear, elk, and the phylum of major and minor fauna.
    Over the hundreds of thousands of years of the existence of these prehistoric animals, the Scioto Salt Springs was an attraction to them, because there are ample records of their bones being commonly found in digging salt wells in the alluvium.
    The Ohio Geological Report of 1838 contains, probably, the most complete and authentic description of prehistoric animals in relation to the Scioto Salt Springs.  The geologist, C. Briggs, Hildreth, and others obtained detailed information directly from their learned friend, George L. Crookham.  Crookham, a naturalist, teacher and scholar had had the opportunity of examining the many fossil bones and whatever other curiosities the early salt boilers found in the Salt Spring neighborhood.  The geological corp in 1837-38, no doubt, quizzed him avidly and felt assured of his accurate observations.
    Briggs and the other geologists had the thrill, themselves to unearth the remains of a mammoth skeleton which had been on the way or leaving the Scioto Salt Springs.  They learned of the finding of some bones on a branch of Salt Creek in the northwest part of Jackson County about two years previously to the time of their survey (circa 1836). Their subsequent research on the site and recorded observations will be most useful in analyzing the potential for finding similar fossil bones today.
    Geologists are stratification experts and, in this case, may have provided the clue to findings in the valley at Jackson.  It will be observed in the quotation below from Briggs' report, and his description later in this report that it was found that the Sharon conglomerate rock which is in the bed of the stream at Boone Rocks dips rapidly to the eastward.  They discovered this in digging wells to procure a more plentiful quantity of salt water.  Briggs explains that the "mud wells" were in stratified layers of clay, sand, and gravel, to a depth of 30 feet.  He says that these occupy a basin-shaped cavity in the conglomerate which they identified as the "salt rock."  "The brine," he states, "without a doubt, was produced by the percolation of water through the rock into this reservoir."
    The stratification record which I wish to call attention to is that record in a plate in the 1838 Geological Report which shows mammoth bones under a stratified layer of clays of various characteristics. These gentlemen successfully dug and recorded their findings at the site of the mammoth find in the north-west part of the county.

Fossil Bones.
    As before observed, some of the salt wells in Jackson county were dug in a deposit of clay, sand, and gravel, occupying a basin-shaped cavity in the superior part of the conglomerate.  In nearly all these wells were found fossil bones, consisting of jaws, teeth, tusks, vertebrae, and ribs, which, from the descriptions given by Mr. Crookham, belong to extinct species of animals.  From his descriptions, remains of the megatherium, and of the fossil elephant, were among the number.

Mammoth, or Fossil Elephant.
    In the early 1970s, some bones, so large as to attract the attention of the inhabitants, became exposed in the bank of one of the branches of Salt creek, in the northwest part of Jackson county.  They were dug out by individuals in the vicinity, from whom we obtained a tooth, a part of the lower jaw, and some ribs.
    In the examinations at this place, during the past season, it was concluded to make further explorations, not only with the hope of finding other bones, but with a view of ascertaining the situation, and the nature of the materials, in which they were found.  The mutilated and decayed fragments of the skull, two grinders, two patellae, seven or eight ribs, as many vertebrae, and a tusk.  Most of these are nearly perfect, except the bones of the head.  The tusk, though it being very frail, it was necessary to saw it into four pieces, in order to remove it.
 The following are the dimensions of the tusk, taken before it was removed from the place in which it was found:

  Length on the outer curve........10 feet 9 inches.
    "      "    inner curve........ 8  "   9   "
  Circumference at base............ 1  "   9   "
       "        2 feet from base... 1  "  10   "
       "        4  "      "     ... 1  "  11   "
       "       7.5 "      "     ... 1  "   7.5 "

    This tusk weighed, when taken from the earth, 180 lbs.  The weight of the largest tooth is 8-1/4 lbs.
    These bones were dug from the bank of a creek, near the water, where they were found under a superincumbent mass of stratified materials 15 to 18 feet in thickness.   The arrangement of these materials, and the relative position in which these interesting fossils were found in the following layers:
 No. 1 is a yellowish clay, or loan, which now forms the surface of swamp about one mile in length, and one-fourth to half a mile in breadth. It is covered with large forest trees, many of which from their size, must have been growing some centuries-- 5-1/2 feet.
 No. 2.  This layer is a yellowish sandy clay--7- 1/2 feet.
 No. 3 is an irregular layer of ferruginous sand, tinged with shades of red and yellow, and partially cemented with iron--4 to 8 inches.
 No. 4 is a chocolate colored clay of mud, the inferior part of which contains the remains of a few gramineous plants, very much decayed--2 feet.
 No. 5.  Sandy clay, colored, like No. 4, but a little lighter--1-1/2 foot.
 No. 6 is the stratum containing the bones.  It consists, judging from external characters, of sand and clay, containing a large proportion of animal and vegetable matter--1 to 1-1/2 foot.
     These bones, from their position, had evidently been subjected to some violence before they were covered with the stratified deposits which have been described.
     The jaw and grinders, with the other bones which we have thus slightly noticed, evidently belong to an extinct species of the elephant, now found in a fossil state.  As the teeth differ from any which are figured and described in the books to which I have access at the present time, it is possible they may belong to an undescribed species.

    The full effects of the glacial period was quite unknown to the primary geologists of Ohio.  They surmised that drainage patterns had been altered and subsequent depositions partially filled older valleys.  They did not realize the extent of interglacial flooding which filled pre-glacial valleys, including that of Salt Lick Creek.  As at Big Bone Lick, there would have been a backwater into the tributaries of the Scioto or earlier Teays River.  These periods of deposition left identifiable stratifications--many with remains of trees, and other vegetation and animal entrapments.
    Briggs' detailed description of these 15 to 18 feet of stratification materials under which the mammoth skeleton was unearthed is a perfect clue to matching strata which might be found in the immediate vicinity of the salt springs at Jackson.  Bones and tree parts have been found in deep-buried clay strata in the Hocking and Scioto Valleys which drained from glacial front.
    There should be a relationship between the post-glacial deposits at the mammoth site and the salt springs with relation to the possibility of finding other buried fauna.

Salt in Ancient Times
    Sodium and chlorine, the two elements which combine to produce a substance called sodium chloride or common salt, are two of the ten major elements necessary for plant and animal life.  Animals ingest it as part of the food they eat or they eat it directly to satisfy an inborn desire.  A certain level must be maintained in the body for good vigor and growth.  Excessive losses must be replaced as from perspiration.  The need for salt has caused it to be an important item of trade and political weapon.
    The National Geographic of August, 1975, has an article by Georg Gerster picturing salt cakes of ancient style in modern Africa being sold in a market place.  He states:   “Once, salt was a cargo so precious that 12th century traders reportedly exchanged it for twice its weight in gold.  Camel caravans still carry slabs from the Sahara to the Niger, where they are transported upriver to the market at Mopti, Mali.” (Ref. 2)
    Salt has left its name on the geography of the earth and in the language.  In Italy, one of the oldest roads was called the Via Salaria (salt road).  The roads leading to Jackson, Ohio, were once called "Salt Roads."  the caravan trade of the Sahara Desert is said to have been a trade in  salt.  The most prominent salt springs seasonally attracted herds of buffalo, elk, deer, and smaller game which through years of repetitious movement carved an extensive system of traces.  Prehistoric and extinct mammals; such as the mastodon, mammoth, giant sloth and bison, no doubt initiated these ancient paths in the Ohio Valley, including those in Jackson County.

Salt Springs and the Native Americans
    An official state dig was made at Boone Rocks and several rock shelters in the summer of 1905 under the direction of William C. Mills of the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society (ref. 4).   His stated objective was "to determine, if possible, whether the rock shelters and other places of abode were occupied for any great length of time as a domicile by prehistoric man or were used as temporary and convenient stopping places for roving banks in search of food."  The report by Prof. Mills is to be found in the annual reports of the society in Volume 2, Part 2, 1912.  It is entitled, "Certain Mounds and Village Sites in Ohio--Archaeological Remains of Jackson County."  This was a separate printing available at the Ohio Historical Society.
    Professor Mills' report lauds the richness of the Boone Rocks Site.  “It was the best and most favorably known because of the great number of Indian artifacts found in the shelter and in the ground adjacent.”  Mills' report indicates that he reviewed the results of private digs in the Boone Rocks site, some of these men having invited the state to include it in their research.  A contributor of note was Mr. F. E. Bingman who studied and wrote "Archaeology of Jackson County," published in one of the local papers, beginning of January 9, 1897.  Two collectors, Judge H. C. Miller and W. A. Steele presented the major parts of their finds in Boone Rock Shelter Site to the Ohio State Historical Society.
    Sad to say, many of the finds by local pot-hunters in this prolific reservoir of Indian artifacts called locally, "The Bone Yard," were carted away and lost.  Pictures of Mills' dig show crude methods, common to the time and, undoubtedly, would have missed smaller artifacts which could have been found by screening.
    Christopher Gist, a professional surveyor and explorer for The Ohio Company of Virginia (not the later Ohio Company from New England who settled Marietta) was sent on an exploratory trip into the Ohio Country in the winter of 1750-51.  His journal (Ref. 5) records his interest in salt springs and describes their characteristics as they appeared in Native American Indian times.  Speaking of the Licking River west of modern Zanesville, Ohio, we quote, "Set out SW 25M, to Licking Creek--The Land from Muskingum to this Place rich but broken--Upon the N Side of Licking Creek about 6M from the Mouth, are several Salt Licks, or Ponds, formed by a little Streams of Dreins of Water, clear but of a blueish Colour, & salt Taste the Traders and Indians boil their Meat in this Water, which (if proper Care be not taken) will sometimes make it too salty to eat."
    Gist provides the first English description of the Scioto Salt Springs at Jackson when nine days later he had left the Pickaway Plains Indian town of Maguck for Lower Shawnee Town at the mouth of the Scioto River.  His party of traders and Indian guides arrived at the Scioto opposite Higby after passing through "fine level Land to a small Town called Harrickintoms" (shown on the 1755 Louis Evans Map).  "Friday 25.--The Creek being very high and full of Ice, We coud not ford it, and were obliged to go down it on the SE side SE 4M to the Salt Lick Creek--about 1M up this Creek on the S Side is a very large Salt Lick, the Streams which run into this Lick are very salt, & tho clear leave a blueish Sediment:  The Indians and Traders make salt for their Horses of this Water, by boiling it; it has at first a blueish Colour, and somewhat bitter Taste, but upon being dissolved in fair Water and boiled a second Time, it becomes tolerable pure Salt."  Later in his journey, Gist was to take note of salt licks in Kentucky and marvel at the huge bones of a large beast found at a "salt Lick of Spring upon a small Creek which runs into the S Side of the Ohio, about 15 M, below the Mouth of the great Miamiee River, and 20 above the Fall of Ohio"--Big Bone Lick.
    The Moravian hero-missionary, the Reverend David Zeisberger, labored for fifty active years among the Delaware Indians.  Among his many literary accomplishments, being a dedicated diarist and report-conscious churchman, is his, "History of the Northern American Indians," published in the 1910 Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications, Vol. XIX, pages 1-189.  Written at his mission home near New Philadelphia, Ohio, in 1779 and 1780 for his superior of the United Brethren Church, he describes the characteristics and habits of the Native Americans during the Indian-White Contact Period in Ohio and the physical characteristics of Ohio geography.  In this treasure-trove is his description of salt springs and the use made of them by Native Americans.

    The Native Americans and wild animals living before settlement of Ohio left their marks in and about Jackson, Ohio, because of the salt springs on Salt Lick Creek.  Their methods of use and artifacts will be described later in this report.

Salt Availability and Ohio History
    The history of Ohio is one of rapid technical development.  Persons of ingenuity were attracted to the Ohio Country from the earliest times of exploration, settlement, and post-frontier days.  They applied themselves to the production of salt.
    The first production was for personal use and the live stock industry.  When supplies became more available, salt was used for preserving and curing meats and other food stuffs.  After human needs were met, salt was used for glazing ceramics and, later, has become the basic ingredient of giant chemical industries.
    Production methods progressively improved and richer sources of the mineral were found.  The Scioto Salt Springs were the most important source of salt in Ohio until approximately 1816 when it was found that you could drill a hundred feet or more and find richer brines than those which exuded from the surface of the earth.  The race from then on is amply documented in the reports of the Ohio Geological Survey.
    The first salt well west of the eastern mountains was on the Great Kanawha, where in 1807, a brine was found which only required 200 gallons per bushel of 50 pounds of salt.  The first well in Ohio to be successfully drilled was at Gallipolis in 1809 where at 100 feet, they reached water of 400 gallons per bushel.  Drilled wells at Jackson did not prove successful which led to the rapid decline of that source, as greatly increased demands for salt had to be met elsewhere (Ref. 3).


    Early explorers of North America were intent on noting the locations of salt springs.  According to a publication (ref. 7)available at the Salt Museum at Syracuse, New York, the first salt spring to be found was discovered in 1654 by a Jesuit Priest, Father LeMoyne, on the shores of Lake Onondaga.
    The springs, when known, were marked on the earliest maps.  Louis Evans marked the location of the Scioto Salt Springs on his map published in England in 1755.
Portion of Lewis Evans' 1755 map of Middle British Colonies in America showing salt springs
Evans received his information from fur traders.  The Scioto Springs are quite accurately placed.  The second-best salt springs in Ohio were also shown, being on the Mahoning River near the present town of Niles (formerly called Saltsburg).  Evans' map calls the river the "West Branch of the Beaver."  The only other salt springs noted on his map are on the east bank of the Little Miami.  Also shown is the "Great Buffalo Lick" on Great Salt Lick River in Kentucky, the modern "Licking."
    Other historic maps made prior to settlement of Ohio on which the Scioto Salt Springs were shown were Mitchell's Map of 1755 and Hutchins' Map of 1778.
    A French map called American Septentrionales published in Paris in 1746 does not spot the Scioto Salt Springs.  An original copy of this map is in the Archives of Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.  It may be seen that the scale of the map might have prohibited locating the salt springs.  The French in the 1740's had a trading post at the mouth of the Scioto River and most certainly would have known of the salt licks nearby.
    I have already noted Christopher Gist's Journal and his reference to the Scioto Licks during his exploration of Ohio in 1750-51.



    The winning of the French and Indian War by the English in 1763 brought not peace, but intensified jungle warfare to the Ohio Valley.  The intent of the new Americans to settle the lands west of the Ohio River was recognized by the retreating tribes of Indians pushed into this last verdant territory of the East.
The Scioto Salt Springs saw much of this Indian warfare, being located on one of the most important war paths of the continent, The Great Indian War Path, Ohio Prong, as it was called by William E. Myer (ref. 8)The salt springs were on the most direct path between Indian settlements in central and western Ohio and the western portions of Virginia and North Carolina.
    Until the defeat of the Ohio Indians at Fallen Timbers in 1794, the Scioto Salt Springs were a favorite stopping off place for war parties to and from the frontier settlements.  To one of these early captives we are indebted for second known description of the Scioto Licks.  Col. James Smith was captured in Pennsylvania in 1755 and wrote later of his travels with the Indians in Ohio.  His report is quoted in the History of the Hanging Rock Iron Region (ref. 9)on Jackson County and reads in part:     There is another story of a freed captive having returned to Virginia after the Treaty of Greenville who married and settled near Jackson.  One morning while hunting a cow on Sugar Run (which joins Salt Lick Creek near Broadway Avenue), she wandered as far as the mouth of the creek and Boone Rocks, lower on Salt Creek.  These she recognized at once as one of the camping grounds where she had lived with the Indians.
    The rock bluff with its small rock shelter in the Coffman Addition to Jackson  is the most unusual rock exposure in Jackson.  It is an outcropping of Sharon Conglomerate about 80 feet high and over 100 yards long.  The stream scoured against the base immediately in front of the rock shelter and was the site of the most important salt springs to the Indians.  Salt water flowed from the base of the cliff and into the nearby stream to collect in potholes in the bed downstream.
    The outcropping of rocks gets its name from the fact that most important captive of the Indians, Daniel Boone, was brought to the licks in June, 1778, to help his captors make salt.  His biographers say that he was there about ten days helping the squaws and we quote his observations, "During this time, I hunted with them and found the land for a great extent above this river to exceed the soil of Kentucky, if possible, and remarkably well watered" (ref. 10)Local tradition believes that he jumped off the cliff to escape but his biography does not confirm this rash act nor would reason believe it (ref. 11).


     At the close of the American Revolution, Congress was faced with enormous debts.  Its principal asset was "The Territory Northwest of the Ohio River" or "Northwest Territory," as it was commonly called.

Objectives of Congress
    The Northwest Territory embraced states which are far beyond the present bounds of Ohio; therefore, the historian will find references to early Ohio in historical accounts of Indians, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin.  Sometimes, those states have more important articles on early Ohio history than we do here, because of such eminent historians as Rueben Thwaites and Frederick Jackson Turner.
    Congress determined to have an orderly and, hopefully, profitable disposition of the lands in the Northwest Territory, in contrast to the hetler-skelter, indiscriminate squatter-style of land settlement which had taken place in the individual thirteen colonies and territories.  A committee was appointed which in May, 1774, reported, "An Ordinance for Ascertaining the Mode of Locating and Disposing of Lands in the Western Territory."  Thomas Jefferson was chairman of that committee(ref. 12).
    "The Northwest Land Ordinance" of 1787 was a companion piece of legislation to provide for orderly governance and development of the Northwest Territory.  Individual rights were to be protected and private exploitation of limited resources, such as known salt springs, were to be controlled.

Importance of the Original Land Surveys
    Jefferson's Land Ordinance Committee established a rectangular system of land subdivision before settlement, rather than to follow the older pattern of indiscriminate land claims.  Land grants had to be a subordinate, referenced portion of townships six-mile square.  Townships wee subdivided into thirty- six sections of one-mile square.  All of this was to be done before claims could be granted.
    Nor was that all the government surveyors were to perform in the Northwest Territory.  In a stoke of genius, the committee and their first geographer, Thomas Hutchins, listed nineteen categories of physical and natural resource information which the surveyors were to carefully note as they ran their lines from north to south and east to west.  This amounted to a resource reconnaissance on a grid sampling system, at one-mile intervals.
    Objects and data to be noted included in part:  soil, land surface, timber, ground cover, minerals, streams, springs the type, mill sites, roads and trails, natural curiosities (Jefferson had learned of the big bones at Big Bone Lick and many earthworks found in the Ohio Valley), and other data with which to assess the new land.
    For a definitive study of the above-mentioned land system, the reader is referred to Beginnings of the American Rectangular Land System, 1784-1800, by William D. Pattison, published by The Ohio Historical Society, 1957.  This exhaustive study was begun in London about 1950 and completed as a student of the Department of Geography, University of Chicago, as Research Paper 50 of the University of Chicago Press.
    The data gathered by the federal land surveyors in Ohio and elsewhere across the United States has provided some of the most important historical information to be found anywhere on the earth.  The worth of it is that it documents findings along the regular lines of the surveys in a statistical manner at a time prior to disturbances by settlers.  Rapid changes occurred after settlement in the changing of roads, ground cover, streams and other physical conditions; but one can retrace the original survey lines and rediscover sites mentioned in the original land surveys.
    Such is the situation at Jackson, Ohio, in regard to the Scioto Salt Springs.  The surveyor's notes from Marietta to Chillicothe to Portsmouth contain numerous references to "The Road from . . . to the Salt Licks on Salt Lick Creek."
    The writer's intense interest in the Scioto Salt Springs really stems from the discovery in the Jackson County Engineer's Office of an original plat of Lick Township and copies of the surveyor's notes as they ran the lines of the six-mile square townships and mile-square sections.  In 1796, Eli Langham, Deputy Surveyor, ran the boundaries of the equivalent of a whole township surrounding the Licks which became known as "The Scioto Salt Reserve."  This was the largest and most important Salt Reserve in Ohio and contained 23,040 acres of land in parts of Lick, Liberty, Franklin and Scioto Townships.  Here was the clue where one might find the long-forgotten and neglected salt springs and the trails leading to them from all directions.
    The original plat for Lick Township, Township 7, Range 18, with this report (shown above) shows Salt Lick Creek meandering through Sections 23, 20 and 19, the tributaries of Sugar Run and Horse Creek which empty into it, roads heading into the area from six different directions, and, most importantly, two locations marked, "SALT SPRINGS."  This map was made by Elias Langham in 1798 as a result of his earlier survey.  It conforms to his survey notes which may be examined line by line.
    It is easy to relocate the original salt springs on the modern topographic map from the original plat by Langham,.  Evidently, these two locations were the sites of the licks from time immemorial, as no other spots are shown.
    The set of springs in Section 19 is at the base of Boone Rocks on the outer loop of the stream bed.  The old stream bed shows clearly on the modern topographic map where it was before the WPA cut it off by straightening the stream during the thirties.  All of the old stream channel can be located from High Street bridge westerly to where it cuts north through the narrows.
    The second set of original salt springs as denoted by the surveyors at the time of acquisition from the Indians was in the bottom land east of Broadway Avenue in the north edge of Section 29.  It can be seen that they are marked east of Sugar Run as it entered Salt Lick Creek and on the north side of the main stream.  Much of this low land has been and is continuing to be filled in by the city with all kinds of trash; however, one can find today pools of water standing in the bottom which may very well resemble the original salt springs. The springs in Section 29 are referred to in the History of the Hanging Rock Iron Region as "The Salt Springs at the foot of Broadway" and it was near these that the hamlet caller "Poplar Row" was established for the convenience of the early white salt boilers.
    The federal surveyors provided another unexpected piece of information about the Scioto Salt Springs which was found at the Land Office of the State Auditor of Ohio, Columbus.  (The original plats and surveyor's notebooks may be viewed there as well as in the Jackson County Engineer's Office.)  In searching through the notes on Jackson County for evidence on the location of Indian paths, I came across a handwritten report by Eli Langham, Deputy Surveyor, dated August 26, 1799, entitled "Observations on the Salt Lick and its Neighborhood".  Langham, obviously, had included this technical report as supplement to his survey of the salt lick reservation.
    From the copy of Langham's report, one can see that the Scioto Salt Licks were more productive than those at Bullitts Lick and Blue Lick in Kentucky.  The third year of operation as a federal reserve showed the expansion above and below the original springs by digging wells in the alluvium.  the "Flag Lick" and "Flatt Lick" mentioned were believed by the late James J. McKitterick to be names of early salt boilers.

Government Surveyors Map the Roads to the Salt Licks

    The Lick Township original plat map of 1798 shows the six roads converging midway between the two original salt springs.  Their approximate locations can be transposed to the modern topographic maps from the original plats and the surveyors record of them as their lines crossed.  In fact, their notes give the exact measurement from the corners to the old traces. The trails are marvels of locational engineering in that they are direct, level as can be, and dry.  They take advantage of fordings, low gaps in ridges, and follow ridges and valley terraces going in the overall right direction.  These are the international characteristics of all ancient foot paths.  Ancient history happened along these paths.
    The six trails leading to and from the Scioto Salt Licks as shown on the original plat went toward the following places, reading clockwise:     The trails came together in Jackson almost equi-distant from the two designated salt springs.  One junction is on the north side of the stream at the confluence of Horse Creek.  The trail crosses the stream at this point and joins those coming from the west, south, and southeast.  the south side junction would have been in the vicinity of the State Highway Garage.  The Road to Gallipolis could well have passed right down Main Street.
    The spokes of trails arriving at the Salt Springs have a characteristic pattern.  A similar pattern exists at the Salt Reserve at Chandlersville, Salt Creek Township, Muskingum County.  Here one notes an "Indian Creek," "Buffalo Fork" and the main stream is called "Salt Creek."  It is believed that Ebenezer Zane first laid out his trail past this salt spring on the main east- west trail then rerouted it through present Zanesville after deciding to claim land at the mouth of the Licking River.  the salt works at Chandlersville met the same fate as those at Jackson; however, no other industries took their place.
    One of the most important prehistoric Indian paths and migration routes on the continent passed through Jackson.  This was "The Great Indian Warpath--Ohio Prong" as described by William E. Meyer in his "Indian Trails of the Southeast" (ref. 8).  It ran from the Creek country in Alabama and Georgia, through East Tennessee, down the Kanawha to its mouth at Point Pleasant.  Myers says that it continued northwesterly past the Salt Springs to important Indian centers near Circleville (Lower Shawnee Town), then northward to Sandusky.  He calls this trail the "Indian Mason and Dixon Line," in that it marked the line of domination between the northern and southern Indians.  Chief Cornstalk would have led his warriors past the salt springs on the way to the Battle of Point Pleasant in 1774.  General Andre Lewis' army camped near the licks on their way to the Indian towns on the Pickaway Plains after the battle.  It is reported that  many of his "Greenbrier Boys" returned to the Salt Springs having been impressed with the prospects, as was Daniel Boone.  The "Road to Gallipolis to the Salt Springs on Salt Lick Creek" followed the "Great Indian Warpath" until about 1816 when the commissioners of the newly-created Jackson County voted to lay out a "New Road to Gallipolis" via Ricky Hill--the European "Enclosure System" was having its affect on road locations.
    The road system in Southeastern Ohio is so conclusive in documenting the importance of the Scioto Salt Springs that I would like to elaborate more on it.
    A map, called "the Hough Map", was published in 1815 which is a composite of the federal land survey plats with modification.  This is known as the first official road map of Ohio. An original is located at the Ohio State Auditor's Office and another at the Ohio Historical Society Archives.  The map plots townships and even sections.  Items of the terrain as noted by the Surveyors are marked on the map.  There were but few towns at the time.  The connecting roads are shown with relative accuracy.  Streams are shown and their branches.  Mills or mill sites are shown.  The Scioto Salt Works are marked, "Salines."  Four roads lead from the Salines, going to the towns in existence at the time.  These are Chillicothe, one road to Marietta with a branch to Athens, the road to Gallipolis and the road to Portsmouth.  None of these exact routes are now used for travel to those cities; although, the new Appalachian Highway from Athens to Jackson approximates the Indian trail, having been suggested by the writer.
    The Arrowsmith Map is dated, according to the Clements Library at the University of Michigan, from 1804 to 1809, this being a time of rapid change for Ohio map makers. It shows the congestion of settlements in the area of the Kentucky salt licks.  It shows the road from Gallipolis to Chillicotha (sic) via the "Salt Springs" and the road from the mouth of the Scioto to the Salt Springs.  This map also shows a road to Middle T. which is Athens (half way between Marietta and Chillicothe or the Salt Springs.
    The Arrowsmith confirms another piece of information about the salt springs not well known, if at all.  This is the existence of other salt springs on streams about nine miles north of Jackson.  These would be in the northwest corner of Washington Township in the vicinity of the Village of Byer.  Arrowsmith's map marks "Salt Springs" on this branch of Salt Creek, called Pigeon Creek.  The rock strata is at about the same elevation as at Jackson; that is, close to the surface.  I inquired of a citizen in Byer once if he knew of any salt springs in the area.  His reply was to say, "No, but that dug-well over there is only eighteen feet deep and has salt water in it."  The same geological situation must prevail on north on the Kelly Fork of the Middle Fork of Salt Creek west of Allenville in Vinton County.  there a well with a pump, yields salt water and it is said, a cow once learned to work the pump handle with her horns to satisfy her need for salt.
    A description of one of the ancient paths leading to the Salt Licks from the north is that of a trail from Byer to Jackson.  This is described in the 1838 initial Geological Survey of Ohio.  Col. Charles Whittlesey, Topographer, repeats a description, perhaps, given to him by Mr. Edward Byers.     The original land survey records from the Scioto to beyond the Muskingum Rivers have numerous references to their roads to the Salt Licks on Salt Lick Creek. County commissioner's records prior to 1816 indicate the pressure being put upon them to maintain and improve the Salt Roads (see Walker's History of Athens County).  Even a remote road in Springfield Township of Ross County east of Mt. Logan was recorded as "The Road from Pickaway Plains to the Salt Lick Settlements."
    The land survey records in their relationship to the salt springs at Jackson can be useful in a study of Pleistocene animals, as well as those which were around at time of settlement.  These extinct animals picked out the first trails to the springs.  There are numerous records of finding extinct mastodons and other megafauna in the vicinity of salt licks, particularly, where thee were swampy areas in which they might become bogged down and die.  This condition would have perhaps existed in the Salt Creek valley.  The maps and notes will help to show the most likely places to look.  Early salt boilers reported finding bones as deep as thirty feet in their wells in the alluvium.  Most certainly the majority of them would be still preserved in the mud.
    I have spent considerable time relating the importance of the original surveys of Congress.  I believe them to be a valuable archaeological resource.  Their locations are so perfect for ease of walking enormous distances that is boggles the mind.  The traffic of Paleo Indians to the modern ones most certainly would have tramped these trails.  Portions of the animal and Indian paths can be found undisturbed.  These may lead to the discovery of unknown sites of occupation.  History happens along the trails.

Federal Control of the Scioto Salt Springs

    Much debate in Congress took place between the Land Ordinance of 1785 and passage of the Land Act of 1796 (ref. 13).  The dilemma on the Ohio Frontier was with the Indians on the one hand and demands for settlement on the other.  Pattison notes that after the defeat of the Indians at Fallen Timbers in August, 1794, freeing an extensive territory against Indian attack, Congress was no longer willing to assign leadership to survey and settlement to private land companies.  The Ohio Company of Associates had purchased a large block and settled at Marietta in 1787.  Their second purchase in 1792 brought them within eleven miles of the Scioto Salt Springs.  They, unquestionably, had their eyes on these salt licks and had explored them.
    The Land Act of 1796 set forth instructions for surveying heretofore mentioned with required the filing of notebooks and township plats; thus making the exploratory information available to prospects for land sales.
    Salt Reservations were made into the law of 1796 in order to prevent monopolistic control.  Lack of control in Kentucky had led to abuse (ref. 14).  In all, 24,216 acres were reserved from sale in Ohio.  The largest and most important was at the Scioto Salt Springs consisting of a full township six-mile square as shown in the map from Peters' Ohio Lands (ref. 15)
    The management of the Scioto Salt Reserve by the federal government was reportedly ineffectual.  The period of 1795 to 1803 was one of "Squatters' Rights."  The first salt boilers came from Kentucky, even while Ohio Company agents at Marietta were negotiating unsuccessfully for exclusive rights to the licks.  John Conklin of Mason County, Kentucky, arrived soon after the Treaty of Greenville was made in 1795.  He is reported to have taken possession of the Indian salt pans in the bed of Salt Lick Creek below Boone Rock and began selling salt to both Indian and white men.  "Thus, prior to statehood, the squarters came in the summer to the licks, made salt illegally for a few months, and then dispersed with the approach of winter" (ref. 9).
    It appears that the extent of federal control was that of surveying the bounds of the Salt Reserve by Elias Langham which continued until 1801.  His "Observations On the Salt Lick and Its Neighborhood" of 1799 may well have been the only other federal activity of note.
    In the meantime, Ohio was filling with settlers who were putting increasing demands on the Scioto Salt Licks for their needs.  Jakle's thesis provides a regional look at the influence of the salt springs in the Ohio VAlley on settlement patterns during the period before and after statehood was achieved in Ohio.
    It will become obvious that the lack of control of the Scioto Salt Reserves by the federal government was one of the strongest arguments for early statehood of Ohio.


    By the year 1800, it is reported in The History of the Hanging Rock Iron Region, that complaints were reaching Congress via William H. Harrison, then delegate from Ohio, about abuses by squatters at the Scioto Salt Reservation.  Squabbles over the diminishing wood fuel supply led to complaints that the springs were diminishing in value.  No doubt, there was a greater demand for fuel for the salt furnaces than could easily be provided and at the same time provide housing for the growing community.
  It became increasingly clear that the federal government could not run the salt business from Washington--"At that place in time."

The Scioto Salt Reservation Comes to the State
    As with Pilate, the Congress washed their hands of the Salt Reservation when they passed the Enabling Act in 1802 to create the State of Ohio.  They tied a string to their gift; however, by forbidding sale of any of the 23,040 acres of land surrounding the salt-bearing formations in the valley.
    The most avid promoters for statehood were from the Scioto Valley.  Historians are familiar with the political intrigue which took place between proponents and opponents in the communities of Marietta, Chillicothe, and Cincinnati.  Perhaps, they have never viewed salt as one of the political influences affecting statehood.
    It Was Dr. John A. Jakle's thesis that frontier settlement concentrated in areas of salt availability, that it was a medium of exchange, and a factor in the vitality of a region.  He states in his dissertation that salt from the Scioto Salt Works supported the live stock industry in the Scioto Valley; and, more than any other commercial activity, sustained the Ohio Valley's urban structure.  Much has been written of the early and successful cattle and hog business of the Scioto Valley centering around chillicothe.  Salt was vital to the growth of stock and the preserving of the meat for use and shipment.  I contend that the nearness of the Scioto Salt Works was an important factor in the vitality of the statehood leaders from  Chillicothe who led the fight and secured the Ohio Capitol--until the salt works fell into disuse.
    It has been sometimes said that Ohio was made a state without it owning any land within its borders.  Congress did retain ownership and continued to sell land through its land offices established by the Land Act of 1796; however, Ohio was granted title to the salt reserves by the Enabling Act of 1802. The second of three propositions offered to the state in Section 7 reads:

    It should be noted that Congress also granted one section of each township (1/36th) for the support of schools in that township.
    The leaders from the Scioto Valley had good connections in Congress and the federal offices; notably, Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury.  Gallatin was a great promoter of "internal improvements."  He was also a friend and business associate of Thomas Worthington, leader for statehood.  Worthington's biography mentions that he was an agent for Gallatin and bought and managed approximately 6,000 acres of land in Ohio for Gallatin.
    Albert Gallatin had this to say to Congress about the Scioto Salt springs during the negotiations for statehood, "The grant of the Scioto Salt Springs will at present be considered as the most valuable, and alone would most probably induce a  compliance on the part of the new state, with the conditions proposed by Congress; and if it be considered, that at least one-half the future population of that district will draw their salt from that source, the propriety of preventing a monopoly of that article falling into the hands of any private individual can hardly be disputed" (ref. 9).
    Thus the new State of Ohio was to start out in the salt business.  One can detect the urgency of bringing orderliness to the chaos reigning at the Scioto Licks under squatter's rule.  Again, we find evidence of the high economic and political importance of the Scioto Salt Springs.
    It could be that the availability of salt in the back yard of the Scioto Valley gave those statesmen the acumen and extra vitality to overcome their competitors in Cincinnati and Marietta.

State Control of the Scioto Salt Works
    The Ohio Legislature lost no time in taking over control of the Scioto Salt Works.  On April 13, 1803, An Act Regulating the Public Salt Works was passed . This and subsequent modifications over the life of the operation provided for a bonded resident agent who was forbidden to engage in salt boiling.  His office was to be set up in June, 1804, after due public notice.  He was authorized to lease small lots for digging of wells in the alluvium and for erecting salt furnaces for boiling.  In order to prevent monopoly of companies or individuals, a limit of 120 kettles maximum was set.  There was a minimum of 30.  A rent of twelve cents per gallon of capacity was charges the first year, but reduced to four cents in 1804 and the amount per lessee limited to 4,000 gallons capacity.  In 1805 the rental was reduced to two cents, and in 1810 to five mills.
    Modification of the state laws pertaining to the operation of the Scioto Licks were required because of changing conditions, as with all enterprises.  Wood for fuel was a critical problem, as the trees nearest the main springs used by the Indians and early settlers were first to go.  Use of stone coal, as it was called in contrast to charcoal, was encouraged by a system of rebates.  Coal began to replace wood in 1807 as two coal seams were exposed in the nearby hills.  One seam had been discovered in digging a salt well in the bottoms.
    While there are scattered but detailed accounts of the operations at the Scioto Salt Licks in various reports as listed in the bibliography, one could make a systematic study of the rise and fall of the enterprise by analyzing the sequential acts of the Ohio Legislature.  There were no less than fifteen acts passed about the Scioto Salt Works.
    One reason for the authenticity of the legislative attempts to cure the problems as they arose at the licks was the fact that Elias Langham, past government surveyor who in 1798 wrote "Observations at the Licks" and surveyed the Salt Reserve, was Speaker of the House for part of the time.  It is likely that he kept a close watch on the system from a professional standpoint.  The legislature met only thirty miles away.
    No doubt, the state agent had his hands full matching lessees with surveyed lots of timber for fuel.  Right-of-ways were permitted for conveying salt water in wooden conduits from wells to boilers crossing other leases.  Other easements were granted to take the wood to the salt furnaces.
    Resident salt boilers needed garden space for subsistence; so in 1804, the agent was authorized to subdivide 800 acres of the reservation into twenty-acre lots for leasing for cultivation.
    Timber trespass and uses of wood for other than needs of the salt furnaces were another policing problem for the agent.  It is said that state control caused a marked improvement by the displacement of squatter's huts for more substantial cabins near the downtown springs.  Tulip poplar trees standing along the hillside facing the stream were cut for cabins--thus the hamlet at that point became known as "Poplar Row."  It was later to become the nucleus for the City of Jackson.
    Other "hamlets" are reported to have sprung up at the sites of substantial salt boiling furnaces.  D. W. Williams in The History of the Hanging Rock Iron Region lists and discusses some of these.
    "New Jerusalem" was a large hamlet at the south edge of the salt boiling activity upstream from the main works.  The best well in that location is stated to have been near where the railroad crosses State Route 93 on the Infirmary Farm.  During the course of this study, and on the basis of the above information, I visited the site and located a mound of burned earth and rocks intermingled with ashes and pieces of clay-bound stones.  It is on the east side of the railroad and approximately 100 feet north of the highway.  The field is planted to wheat at present.  This, most certainly, is the remains of one of the salt furnaces and could yield valuable information of the size and characteristics of them.
    There was a third smaller hamlet on Buckeye Creek, west of Jackson, near where John Downey's residence stood.  A fourth was on Given's Run where JISCO furnace stands now.  Williams lists others up and down the valley, for at times there were as many as twenty furnaces boiling salt.
    The City of Jackson grew from the hamlet of Poplar Row, as mentioned.  The lay of the land nearby was more conducive for expanding the number of salt wells and furnaces than at Boone Rock vicinity.  three tributaries came together making for a wider first bottom into which wells could be dug for finding salt water.  Another land factor for the growth of the Poplar Row site was the gently sloping hillside and the extent of relatively- level table land adjacent on which the town now stands.  This amounts to approximately one square mile.  Section 29, of which the downtown portion of Jackson occupies the northwest quarter, was the only section of the salt reservation which was not divided into 80-acre lots.  Sale of lots in Section 29 was permitted in 1816 and the money used for the construction of the courthouse.
    It seems apparent that the area adjacent to Boone Rocks was more suitable for itinerant Indian uses for making salt and hunting than might have been the salt springs located in the bottom at the mouth of Sugar run.  Both sites were used by the Indians, but more remains to be learned of them at the Boone Rocks.  Williams mentions an Indian village site opposite the Boone Rocks near Diamond Town.  There is a second bottom adjacent to the old channel below Boone Rocks wherein the salt pans were located which could have been this village site.  Houses are on this small rise of land on the east side of the old channel and on the north side of the D.T.&R. RR.
    White man's geography, being vastly different than that of the Indian, led to the upgrading of the area adjacent to the "Springs at the Foot of Broadway" and the degrading of the area near the "springs at Boone Rocks."
    Williams also mentions an Indian village site in the part of Jackson called Jamestown.  This is a logical site for a village as it is on a low rise and immediately adjacent to the springs in the bottom.  The site would have been much disturbed by the Star Furnace (blast furnace) and housing. Indians continued to come to the licks to buy salt as long as they continued in operation.
    It is reported that the courthouse is located on the highest point of the terrace overlooking the valley below on the exact site used by the Indians to torture their captives.  A burning stake was here and probably a place to run the gauntlet.  The Great Indian Warpath crossed over the same point.


    It is to one of the early salt boilers, George L. Crookham, who arrived from Pennsylvania in 1799, that we owe much of the credit for scholarly information about the first years of the white man's domain at the Scioto Salt Licks.  He was a teacher, farmer, salt boiler, abolitionist, and collector of natural history objects and Indian artifacts.  People brought everything they found of curious nature to him for identification.  These included mastodon and other fossils they found in digging salt wells to a depth of thirty feet in the alluvium.  Crookham was the source of information and inspiration to John Wesley Powell, the Colorado River explorer and founder of the Bureau of Ethnology who lived in Jackson.
    Crookham lived long enough to pass on his wealth of information about the salt springs and other geological findings to the corps of intrepid geologists of the First Geological Survey in 1837-38. Unfortunately, Crookham's collection of fossils and Indian artifacts were destroyed by anti-abolitionists when they burned his school in the night.  If the site could be found, perhaps some of the fossils and artifacts could be recovered.


    We have been discussing a craft which went out of style well over 100 years ago.  During the Nineteenth Century salt manufacture underwent a complete transformation from simple evaporation in potholes in the stream, to open kettles, to boiler and vat, and, finally, to underground mining of rock salt.
    A description of the two earlier methods will help to analyze the historical significance of the salt boiling operations which took place in the Jackson community.

Indian Methods of Making Salt
    Some writers give the impression that Indian use of salt was acquired from the white man.  This is probably more of the Anglo-Saxon ego, because evidence at the Scioto Salt Springs and other noted springs speaks otherwise.  Zeisberger contradicts himself in his description of salt use and manufacturing by Indians.  Jakle quotes a Smithsonian Institution report by H. Kanitz (Annual Report, 1957, pp. 445-53) that small amounts of sodium chloride through consumption of game had been adequate; however, their learned taste for salt from the white man exceeded their capacity for production.
    The reported ten feet of midden at the Boone Rock shelter beside the salt springs probably belies the above assumption.  The traffic to these salt springs as evidenced by the spokes of paths in all directions with characteristics of antiquity further discounts this theory.  The Indians have a record of discreetness about sources of their natural resources.
    In the report of Dr. S. P. Hildreth of the First Geological Survey in 1837-38 he states,

  Christopher Gist reported that Indians boiled their meat in salt water, sometimes overdoing it, making it too salty to eat.
    A display at Big Bone Lick State Park in Kentucky states, "Records of salt making at Big Bone Lick date back to the early 17th century when the Shawnee Indians made 'Magic White Sand' by boiling brine in crude pottery vessels."
    It is likely that the most used site for making salt by the Indians was in the vicinity of the Boone Rocks, because that was the prime source springs and the shelter.
    The second most used area of the Indians would have been diagonally across the valley for one-half mile.  This is reported to be the area of the most salt pans in the bed of the stream.  One of these salt pans was chiseled from the bed of the stream and may be seen at the residence of Mrs. Gwynn Parry in Jackson.
    The third most used salt site of the Indians was likely the springs at the foot of Broadway east of the municipal light plant.  Salt pans were also reported here in the bed of the stream.  Pools still exist in the bottom, although they are fast being covered by a city dump at the present time.
    Indians used brass and iron kettles just as soon as they could obtain them in trade for furs.  These they could carry with them without breaking.  Christopher Gist's Journal states, “Indians and Traders make salt for their Horses of this water, by boiling it.” There were hundreds of horses in the Ohio country at that time, brought in by traders for saddle and pack horses.

Early Settler's Methods
    Returning to Hildreth's description of the Scioto Salt Licks in the 1838 Geological Survey we read,

    The Take-over of the Scioto Salt Springs from the Indians was not without peril and dramatics.
    The initial settlers of Ohio, The Ohio Company New Englanders, reached Marietta in 1788 and were picketed by the Indians until the winning of the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.  They knew of the salt springs on the Muskingum near Duncan Falls and those on the Scioto tributary, but not the exact location.  Both were in Indian territory.
    In 1794, Griffin Green and seven other men ventured down river to the mouth of Leading Creek, hid their pirogue and followed "the well-known Indian trail straight to the Licks."  Their story in The History of the Hanging Rock Iron Region says that following directions of an escaped prisoner, they arrived at Boone Rocks where they discovered the salt pans of the Indians.  Using a small brass kettle brought for the purpose, they boiled until they had a tablespoonful of salt.  They stayed overnight and hurried to their boat the next morning.  Difficulty was encountered in launching their boat, and they were no sooner on the opposite side of the Ohio when a bank of threatening Indians appeared on the shore.
    While the Bostonians were getting over their fright, Anthony Wayne was doing what General St. Clair had failed to do.
    The "Spread of Settlement" which affected the operation of salt making at the Scioto Licks came from Kentucky and Virginia (ref. 16).Nathaniel Massie, a practical pioneer, had established a settlement at Manchester on the Ohio side of the river.  In spite of Indian threats, he had continued to make extensive land surveys for claiming bounty grants in the Virginia Military Lands, bounded on the east by the Scioto River, not more than twenty miles away near Piketon.
    There were many dissidents in Kentucky who found themselves with faulty land titles, overcrowding and high prices for salt.  Massie, a functional statesman, prepared at great personal risk for moving to the Ohio interior.
    Jakle in his report points out, "Although scores of salt licks had been discovered in Kentucky, only the largest and most accessible were actually developed; i.e., Bullitt's Lick on the Wilderness Road and the Lower Blue Saline on the 'Alanto-o- wamiowee.'"  Daniel Boone and others who had visited the Scioto Licks had carried back, not only knowledge of the richer brine (660 gal./bu., vs. 1,000 gal./bu. in Kentucky), but admiration for the rich land about the springs.
    The first move to settle in the Scioto Valley not far from the Scioto Licks was that of Nathaniel Massie and his small band of forty pioneers in the spring of 1795.  They were driven off by a band of hostile Indians.  Cocked and ready, they were back the following year and did make their initial settlement in the rich valley bottom below Chillicothe.  They raised a crop on 300 acres around their temporary quarters, called "Prairee Station."  That summer Massie laid out a town on higher ground and called it "Chillicothe" as a flaunt to the Shawnee who had long held them back.
    Another Kentuckian, John Conklin of Mason County, and his small band of salt boilers were not dissuaded by the Indians still roving around Ohio after Fallen Timbers.  Williams reports (ref. 9) that Conklin had waited patiently until a runner came with the news of the signing of the Greenville Treaty.  Before the ink was dry, he was herding his entourage with their salt kettles up the Guyan Trace through Lawrence County to arrive at the Scioto Salt Licks in September 1795.
    Conklin's method was to resort to the Indian's salt pans in haste to get his operation under way, for Williams states that when a group of settlers came from Marietta a few weeks later, they found Conklin in possession of the Indian salt pans and bought salt instead of boiling it.  Conklin built his cabin at the foot of Broadway, which indicates that salt pans may have been in the bed of the creek there as well as at Boone Rocks.
Before looking around in the low lands of Jackson for remnants of salt furnaces, it might be well to review what sparse descriptions are to be found.  Pictures seem to be even more scarce.
    A picture of a Kentucky Salt Furnace is on a bronze plaque at the Big Bone Lick State Park, southwest of Ccincinnati.  A description is beside it reads,     Other exhibits at Big Bone State Park are scattered over the area where salt was made and prehistoric animal bones were found.  A museum exhibits artifacts found in the site from extensive archaeological excavations.  It is an example of what could be developed at the Scioto Salt Licks.
A description of the Scioto Salt Works was made in a diary of Mrs. Charlotte E. Bothwell,  who settled with her family near McArthur, Ohio, in 1814 (ref. 17)Her journal tells of traveling by wagon from Gallipolis over roads which were mere paths via what is now Jackson.  She wrote that, "It was nothing but a 'salt works,' a number of rough, scattering cabins, and long rows of kettles of boiling water."  Later at her home, she was to write, "Our salt we got at Jackson; gave $2 for fifty pounds of mean, wet, dirty salt as could not find a market now at any price."
    William T. Utter in Volume II of A History of the State of Ohio (ref. 18)"The Frontier State," quotes the best description I have discovered of salt boiling at Jackson.  He credits Jervis Cutler for this description which he found in Cutler's Topographical Description of the State of Ohio, Indiana Territory, and Louisiana, 1812.  Utter writes as follows on page 254:     From Jakle's dissertation we find a quotation from Col. William Fleming's Journal of 1779 as he journeyed from Harrodsburg to the Falls.  It likewise, describes the operation as it may have been done at the Scioto Licks.  His journal reads in part,     Clement L. Martzloff, Ohio University history professor and local historian, has a chapter on "the Salt Boilers" in his Fifty Stories from Ohio History.  (Ref. 19)He pays due credit to the importance of the licks at Jackson and adds a few comments not heretofore mentioned.  In the salt pans and depressions in the rocky bottom of the stream, the sun would evaporate the salt water causing a thin crust of salt to collect which was scraped off.  He mentions the archaic habit of the Indians of heating large stones red-hot and dropping them into pools and pots to hasten evaporation.
    Martzloff visited the federal Salt Reserve near Chandlersville on Salt Creek of Muskingum County.  He found burnt earth showing where the kettles had been placed in the village.  Two furnaces operated there for many years as reported in the 1838 Ohio Geological Survey.  Martzloff found one of the old salt kettles in Morgan County and gave it to the Ohio Historical Society, where, he says, it was on display.
    In Walker's History of Athens County we find several references to the importance of salt to people in that part of the Ohio Company settlement.  These relate both to the Scioto Salt Works and to the salt springs at Chandlersville in Muskingum County.  Selected portions of the references are included because they present a different viewpoint--that of a group of settlers located between the Scioto Salt Licks and those on the Muskingum before riched brines were reached by drilling.
    Athens, Ohio, is where the Ohio Company officials chose to establish a seat of higher learning in 1804.  The settlement around the founding college was called Middletown, because it was midway between Marietta and Chillicothe, the two leading settlements of the territory.  Two townships were given to the college for rental only--the proceeds going for support of the college.  The political influence of the townspeople grew stronger and that of the people scattered throughout the county grew weaker as far as maintenance of roads to the salt works was concerned.
    Walker confirms that the Marietta people sent an exploration party to search for the reported salt springs north on the Muskingum as they did for the Scioto Salt Springs.  The first party went out during the Indian War and failed to find the spring which have been reported by an escaped captive.  A second party succeeded in finding the licks worked by the Indians seven miles from the river on Salt Creek.
    Having found Kentuckians established at the Scioto Salt Springs when the first salt boilers arrived from Marietta after the signing of the Indian Treaty, they had purchased salt and returned.  Walker reports that at about the same time the Marietta settlers established a salt boiling operation at the Muskingum licks.  The relationship of one to the other is unknown, but they were most likely hoping to have the Muskingum licks to themselves.
    The establishment of the first salt furnace on the licks near the Muskingum River is described as follows:  Twenty-four salt kettles were purchased at Pittsburgh.  They were transported from there to Duncan Falls (the mouth of Salt Creek, of course, coming from the ancient licks) by water.  Pack horses were used to transport the kettles to the salt springs seven miles away.  A well was dug near the edge of the stream about fifteen feet deep to the bedrock.  The water oozed and rose through the crevices, though not abundantly.  The trunk of a hollow sycamore tree was set in the well to exclude the surface water.  The water was raised from the well by a sweep pole.  Production was reported at 100 pounds of salt in twenty-four hours of round-the-clock boiling.  Walker states that this was the first attempt to manufacture salt in Ohio by the Marietta settlers and that the product was an inferior and costly item.  Salt for settlers in Athens County was made at both the Scioto Salt Works and the Muskingum Springs.
    In 1805, the Athens County Commissioner began to be faced with requests for maintenance and improvements of roads to the Scioto Salt Works, which indicates the increasing dependence on those operations for salt as compared to the Muskingum works.  It is noted that they favored the road from Athens but neglected the ancient trace directly from Marietta to the Scioto Salt Springs across Lodi Township south of Athens.
  Another piece of the salt history puzzle was found in the 1923 Ohio Geological Survey Report called Geography of Ohio by Roderick Peattie (ref. 20)His is a short but good summary on salt in Ohio.  He adds that a bushel was first counted at 80 then 50 pounds.  "When salt was weighed out," he says, "no one was allowed to walk across the puncheon floor lest he disturb the scales."  On page 82 of Peattie's report there is a picture of an old salt furnace in Morgan County showing rows of large kettles used in evaporating brine.
    Kentucky is not the only state which has honored its pioneer salt industry with a museum and park.  At Syracuse, New York, near where the first salt lick was found in this country by the French, there is a large and interesting salt museum.  The entire kettle-type furnace has been reconstructed in a building.  Artifacts of the industry are on display.  These include wooden shovels, containers, scales, tools for boring wooden pipes an pictures.  This salt operation  would be similar to those which operated in Meigs, Morgan, Muskingum and Gallia Counties in the second state of salt manufacture in Ohio.  This museum was established in the thirties in a county park.

A Summary of the Utilization of the Scioto Salt Springs

    Reviewing the geologist's documentation in their 1838 report of the sequence of exploitation at the Scioto Licks we might outline as follows:

    1. Animals drank from the salty pools in springs and potholes in the rocky bed of the stream; and, in dry seasons, munched the salt-encrusted earth.
    2. Indians dipped water from the springs beside Boone Rocks and in mid-town into clay pots and later, iron and brass kettles for boiling by hot rocks and later external heat.
    3. Indians improved their technology by chiseling deeper potholes in the soft Sharon Conglomerate bed of the stream to a depth of two feet.
    4. Traders, hunters, and the firs salt boilers used the same potholes of the Indians, only they sunk holes to a depth of six or eight feet; finally, up to twenty feet and excluded the surface water with a "gum" or section of hollow tree (black gum) sunk into the cavity.
    5. After a few years, the white boilers found they could dig wells in the alluvium higher up the stream above the original springs, which, to their surprise filled with salt water as rich as at the old licks.  These reached thirty feet before they reached the sand rock.
    6. During the period of greatest production at the Scioto Licks, according to Hildreth's accounts, from 1806 to 1808, there were twenty furnaces in operation.  These made an average of from fifty to seventy bushels of salt per week, worth $2,50 per bushel of fifty pounds.
    7. "Salt Roads," as they were called, were mere bridle paths.  The salt was carried on pack-horses and distributed through the middle and western portions of the state.
    8. Salt water was transported in wooden conduits made from boring sections of logs, generally yellow poplar.  Brace and bits were used to bore the holes.  They were expandable and extendable.


    Change being the characteristic of industry and Ohio being one of the leading industrial states in the Union, one might say that events at the Scioto Salt Works was a preview of things to come.
    Another industrial axiom pertinent to the subject is that where there is a need and there is a raw material to fill that need, someone will bring the two together.
    Ohio was filling up very fast with people at the start of the Eighteenth Century after the treaty with the Indians.  Most of these were farmers with increasing herds of livestock.  Salt was the most important item which they could not produce on their farms.  It was so scarce and important a commodity that county commissioners from neighboring counties of Jackson appropriated considerable sums of money to improve the "salt roads to the Scioto Salt Works."

Technology Off to a Slow Start
    Search for richer brines was the key to lower costs of salt.  Six hundred gallons of water would fill twelve of our 50- gallon drums and the thought of converting all of that to steam, leaving a fifty-pound residue would be enough to motivate a person.
    The trend at salt springs was to drill or dig for hopefully, richer brines into the soil or rock strata under the springs.  The trouble was that they did not know which strata contained the connate salt, for the Ohio Geological Survey was not created until 1837.  Only hit and miss methods would tell.
    A spring-pole method was modified to drill into the rock.  These would have resembled the primitive grain mills.  The drilling was slow and laborious.  Peattie reported that one well near Zanesville still had its  hollow "gum" log in it in 1923.
    The rock drilling technique made some unprofitable surface licks profitable and vice versa.  Near Gallipolis on Chicamauga Creek in 1807, Fletcher and Tupper worked a surface lick of brine comparable to that at Jackson, 600 gallons per bushel.  By drilling to 100 feet in the rock, they procured water which only required 400 gallons per bushel.  This was the first attempt ever made in Ohio to reach that depth (ref. 3).
    Credit for first boring into rock strata for salt west of the mountains is given to Col. D. Ruffner of Charleston, West Virginia (Virginia at the time), according to Hildreth.  He obtained water which required little in excess of 200 gallons per bushel.
    The Ohioans were not asleep at the licks.  In legislative session at the State Capitol at nearby Chillicothe, inducements were built into the Acts to Regulate the Scioto Salt Works. The 1810 Act contained a section giving any person procuring water of sufficient strength to make a bushel of salt from less than 250 gallons and sufficient to supply 40 kettles, a free lease for ten years.  None did.
    In 1812 the Legislature appropriated $1,500 which was not taken up.  The allowance was dropped back to $750 and William Givens, a Scioto salt boiler, accepted the challenge by drilling to 450 feet, according to Crookham.  A stronger water was procured, but it was of small quantity, and did not rise to the surface as it had in wells elsewhere.  The geologists theorize that this was due to lack of "carburetted hydrogen gas" (some salt licks gave of mephitic gas, as it was called.  Others were called, "Stink Wells" from the sulfurous gases).  Force pumps had not yet been invented.  This was a crucial factor at the Scioto Salt Works.
    With competition from the Kanawha and Gallipolis Salt Works and others soon to follow in Gallia and Meigs Counties, the action at the Scioto Salt Works began to wind down, coming to a halt in 1816.

State Stewardship at the Scioto Salt Reserve at Odds with the Times
    At a time in the Nation when the greatest opportunity in life lay in acquiring land, the leasing of lands in the salt reserve on short duration amounted to the most depressing kind of tenancy.  Stovers' rights were a poor substitute for private ownership.
    Poplar Row and its environs had much more going for it than salt manufacturing.  Yet no one could buy the land, but only watch it deteriorate from cutting wood for salt furnaces.  As Boone had noted, there was much good farm land.  In addition, there was coal, iron ore, clay, limestone, and sand-rock in the hills around.  The salt industry had actually increased the demand for iron; in fact, some early blast furnaces were called, "Salts," as salt kettles were their main product.
    There was traffic through the Salt Works from all directions.  Persons travelled from Marietta to Chillicothe by way of the Salt Works, as this was the improved road.  Cattle drives passed through on their way to Baltimore.  Welsh immigrants were arriving to farm and work in the mines.  The "Great Indian War Path" was still a primary migration route, even after thousands of years.
    Folks were anxious to put down roots, but the federal government had forbidden any of the 23,040 acres of the six-mile reserve to be sold--only leased on short duration.
     Scattered throughout the 1838 First Ohio Geological Survey Report are observations relating to the Scioto Salt Works.  At the time of the Survey, the action at the Scioto Licks was past history; however, the procurement of salt was still a prime interest of the geologists.  By 1880, the geologists were calling the production of salt in Ohio, "A lost Cause."
    The Fourth Assistant Geologist of Ohio, C. Briggs, Jr., in his part of the 1838 report (pages 94-98) analyzes the failure of the deep drilling at Jackson.  He also comes up with a new term, "Mud Wells," to denote the wells dug in the alluvium in contrast to those dug in the sandrock.
    He explains, "The 'mud wells' were dug to the depth of 24 to 30 feet in clay, and gravel, which occupy a basin-shaped cavity in the superior part of the 'salt rock,' at Jackson--the bring, without doubt, was produced by the percolation of water through the rock into this reservoir."
    Briggs' report refers to a plate accompanying his report which contains two items of great interest to this study.  The plate is a cross-section of Salt Lick Creek in the northwestern part of Jackson County where fossil bones of a mastodon were unearthed in 1836 and examined by the geologists.
    Another plate is a geological section to illustrate the position of rocks in the southern part of the state on a line from Bainbridge through and past Jackson.  He shows the salt wells at Jackson, including the deep one to the Waverly formations and a salt well in the Paint Creek valley four miles west of Chillicothe.
    Briggs' discussion may explain why no salt is found in measurable amounts in the groundwater near Jackson at the present time, therefore, we include entire remarks:

Geological Position of the Muriatiferous Rocks and Salines.
    As Dr. Hildreth has given the history of the various salines of the State, by remarks upon this subject will be principally confined to pointing out the geological position of those which have come under my observation. 
        The determination of the geological position of the strata from which the brine issues, is a matter of high scientific and practical interest, as upon this will depend our success in tracing the muriatiferous rocks, and pointing out situations where explorations for salt water may be made with some degree of certainty. 
       Water, impregnated with muriate of soda, has been found in all the rocks, from the superior part of the conglomerate down to the great limestone deposit, which is indicated on the profile as underlaying the whole eastern portion of the State.  By reference to the plate, it will be seen that these limits embrace the conglomerate, Waverly sandstone series, and the great mass of argillaceous slate or shale, that is immediately superimposed upon the limestone. 
       In the argillaceous shale (vide c, figure 4, of the plate) salt water has been obtained in several places by boring; but it was so deficient in quantity and strength that it could not be used profitably in the manufacture of salt.  One of these wells was bored in the valley of Paint Creek, about three or four miles west of Chillicothe.  Its position is indicated on the profile, to which reference has been made, by the perpendicular line aa. 
       Brine has been obtained in the Waverly sandstone series, by sinking through the conglomerate at the licks in Jackson county, and good water obtained, but not in quantity sufficient to be profitably used in competition with the Kenawha salt wells, in Virginia.  The salines at Jackson, early attracted the attention of the western pioneers; and from them, alone, was obtained most of the salt used in the early settlement of the State.  They were finally abandoned, in consequence of much stronger bring having been obtained in Virginia.  These wells, with the exception of those called "mud wells," wee commenced in the superior part of the conglomerate, which, on this account, was denominated the "salt rock,"  They varied in depth from 10 to 450 feet, with no sensible improvement in the strength of the brine, except in the deepest, which was bordered at the expense of the State; and in this, no difference was observed in the saturation of the water, till the strata had been penetrated 350 feet, when it continued to improve, till the work ceased.  Mr. George Crookham, by whom the information in regard to these wells was communicated, say he thinks the brine, at the depth of 350 feet, was equal in strength to that used on the Kenawha, but that the quantity was comparatively small.  This well, which penetrates the Waverly sandstone series, is indicated on the profile by the perpendicular line bb. 
       The valuable salt wells on the Hockhocking river, five miles west from Athens, were commenced in the superior part of the series, indicated on the profile by the letter F.  The water from these wells is said to be equal, in every respect, to the best wells on the Kenawha, yielding about ten per cent of salt.  These wells are about 430 feet in depth; a distance sufficient to penetrate the conglomerate, and, perhaps, to reach the Waverly sandstone. 
       All those wells which were commenced in strata in a geological position below those before mentioned on the Hockhocking River, are deficient in the strength of the brine.  The principal cause of this may be found in the fact, that they were situated so far west, as to be too near the outcropping edges of the muriatiferous strata; in consequence of which, the water, before rising to the surface, could not percolate a sufficient distance through the strata to become thoroughly impregnated with saline matter. 
        The wells at Jackson, in addition to the disadvantage of having been commenced too low in the series, were situated on a stream, the waters of which run in a direction opposite to the dip, through deep valleys and ravines, which so interrupt the continuity if the strata, that a considerable portion of the saline matter finds its way into the water courses, and flows off in a westerly direction. 
        From the facts which have been stated, it may be inferred that locations for salt wells, to be the most judicious, should be higher in the series than the conglomerate, and on those streams which flow across the country in an easterly direction, or nearly in the line of dip.  And as some of the strongest brine has, probably, been obtained in the conglomerate, the wells should be bored so deep as to penetrate that stratum. 
        There are other circumstances which influence the quantity and strength of brine, besides those which have been stated.  Among these may be mentioned fissures and undulations in the strata, and the relative amount of saline matter in the muriatiferous rocks at different localities; in consequence of which, some uncertainty will always attend boring in search of salt water.
Dissolution of the Scioto Salt Reserve
    The dissolution of the Scioto Salt Reserve took place in several legal steps.  The first move coincided with the creation of a new county in 1816 with the seat of justice to be at the Scioto Salt Works.  Justification for establishment of a county was given as the distance to the, then, county seat  at Chillicothe (Ross County included the Salt Reserve).  The "lawlessness" of some of the salt boilers and too many squatters in the woods was another stated reason for the petition.  Added to this was political ambitions of some of the leading citizens--so D. W. Williams relates.
    When the county was established by legislative act in 1816, the Legislature asked congress for permission to sell Section 29 which had not been subdivided into 80-acre lots.  The northwest quarter of this section is the heart of the present town and adjacent to the principal springs at Poplar Row.  Congress made this concession on the conditions that the proceeds be used for construction of a courthouse.
    Jackson County was named in honor of President Andrew Jackson.
    In 1824 another appeal was made by the Ohio Legislature asking Congress for permission to sell the balance of all salt reserves in Ohio.  Congress quitted federal title to these lands in December, 1824, and directed the use of the proceeds for school and literary purposes.
    Thus ended the first great experiment by the State of Ohio and the United States of American in public control of a limited and vital natural resource.


    The decreasing cost of a bushel of salt at the new works with improved methods of transportation caused the complete abandonment of salt manufacturing in Jackson about 1816.
    Hildreth reported in 1838 that none of the salt furnaces were to be found.  Doubtless, they hauled their salt kettles, barrels, buckets and other paraphernalia to Gallia and Meigs Counties. Through tempting, further discourse on the manufacture of salt in Ohio serves this study no value.
    Of more importance is a generalization of what has happened to the salt works of the Indians and the settlers who came after them until 1816.
    Business and residential housing expanded on the terrace behind Poplar Row where there was ample room for expansion.  The iron industry and other types have occupied the parts of the main valley and first bottoms adjacent.
    The first bottom or immediate flood plain had largely been left unoccupied.  Those portions between Bridge Street and Harding Avenue are either being filled in or have been filled in for many years.  This includes the original springs just east of Broadway which is now in process of being filled.
    We have read that the riffles and salt pans in the old stream bed below Boone Rocks were blasted away to improve drainage for farming.  This was done by 1898.  The County Engineer had some drainage done about ten years ago in the same area.
    Salt wells which had been dug in the first bottom would have silted full from frequent flooding and caving of the sides.
    A government relief project in the Depression years changed the channel of Little Salt Lick Creek by straightening it to its present channel.  Somewhere along the line, it lost its very descriptive name of "Salt Lick Creek."
    Salt pans and the holes dug into the bed of the stream by the early salt boilers to a depth of twenty feet should have defied the blasting which supposedly took place.  It is certainly conceivable that the wells in the rock to the greater depths should still be there.
  The salt furnaces as described, unless destroyed by excavation for later buildings, might resemble a grass or tree-covered heap.  Such is the case at New Jerusalem near the railroad crossing south on S.R. 93 in a ploughed field.  Others might still be found.
    The Boon Rock Area, the prime site of the study, speaks for itself of late years.  The Mills' archaeological report of 1905 describes and shows three pictures of the cliff and cave.  It appears to have been brushy pastureland at the time.  Old timers called it the "Bone Yard" from the ease of finding relics of Indian use.
    The Boone Rock Area occupies the northwest corner of the City and was subdivided several years ago into lots.  Called The Wood-Coffman Addition and added to the City in 1888, those lots on well-drained land were sold and occupied with houses.  Lots in the swampy area and cliff area were not used for housing for obvious reason, as the area floods readily.  This vacant area has been "trading stock" in Jackson.  Numerous sheriff sales have been made for delinquent taxes.  Squatters have been permitted to use the area by the owners.  One squatter, Whiskey Miller, ran a trash operation there and left most of his collections behind as an inducement for others.  That practice continues.  Thus, a veneer of trash covers the site.
    The City of Jackson built their sewage treatment plant some years ago on the west edge of the Wood-Coffman Addition against the city's western boundary line on very limited ground.  This is immediately adjacent to the Boone Rock cliff and the old meander of the stream as it leaves the cliff to head across the valley.
    Small trees have grown up in the area in front of Boone Rocks.  Buttonbush grows in the slough of the old streambed.  Higher on the cliff oaks, hickories, maples, mountain laurel, and trailing arbutus grow.  Japanese honeysuckle and poison ivy are all too plentiful.
    Some quarrying has been done on each end of the Boone Rocks, but this was not done beside nor above the rock shelter.  There the strata is cross-beaded and pock-marked in a muralfront fashion.  Drill marks show where stone was removed.  This quarrying did not destroy the beauty of the rock exposure.
    Strangely enough, the downtown salt springs in the northwest corner of Section 29 east of Broadway are called on the town plat, The Commons.  The oldest springs appear to have been on Lots 9 through 12 on the north side of the stream.
     East of Harding Avenue on the flood plain, once occupied by salt boiler, presumably; there is mostly vacant land.  Small trees cover it.  The condition extends to beyond the new Appalachian Highway in the first bottom.
     All of the bottom lands at the mouths of Horse Creek and Sugar run have been filled and occupied for many years by factories and residences.  This area extends from Route 35 on the southeast to Route 93 on the west.  It was  noted that salt wells were dug some distance up Horse Creek and Sugar Run.  It is not known how far.  There is a small swamp east of the D.T.&I. shops along the city boundary which may have yielded salt.

Here ends my 1977 report on the Scioto Salt Springs and Salt Works. I believe strongly that the importance of salt in the history and development of Southeastern Ohio is grossly ignored and have been working for years for its proper recognition. Click here for my vision:

Proposal for "Salt Springs Information Center"


Ref. 1  Book of Original Plat Maps for Jackson County. Located in the County engineer's Office. Lick Township Plat, Twp. VII, Range XXVIII, was made and surveyed by Elias Langham, Deputy Surveyor in May, 1798. The Township was subdivided by James Denny in 1805. Supporting field notes are found in the State Suditor's Office, Columbus, OH. (Return Ref. 1 text)

Ref. 2 Gerster, Georg, "River of Sorrow, River of Hope," National Geographic, August, 1975, pp 163-165. (Return Ref. 2 text)

Ref. 3 First Annual Report of the Geology of Ohio, W. W. Mather, et al, 1838. Ref. 3 is to Dr. S. P. Hildreth's Report on the Salines of Ohio which he had visited. pp 57-68. Hildreth received his information about the early operations of the Scioto Salines from George L. Crookham, salt boiler and eminent teacher of natural history in Jackson. (Return Ref. 3 text)

Ref. 4  Mills, William C., "Archaeological Remains of Jackson County," Certain Mounds and Village Sites in Ohio, Vol. 2, Part 2, 1912, pp 61-100. (Return Ref. 4 text)

Ref. 5  Darlington, W. M., ed., Christopher Gies's Journals, Pittsburg, PA, 1893, pp 42-43. (Return Ref. 5 text)

Ref. 6 Zeisberger, David, "A History of the Indians," Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications, 1910, pp, 1-189. Written 1779-1780. Edited by Archer Butler Hulbert and William Nathaniel Schwarze, 1909. (Return Ref. 6 text)

Ref. 7 Onondaga county Bark System Bulletin, Eighteenth Ed., 1965, Onondaga County Division of Parks and Conservation, Liverpool, NY (Return Ref. 7 text)

Ref. 8 Myer, William E., "Indian Trails of the Southeast," Bureau of Ethnology 42nd Annual Report, 1928, Smithsonian Institution. Washington, DC, pp. 727-854. (Return Ref. 8 text)

Ref. 9 Williams, Daniel W., Ed. "History of Jackson County," A Standard History of THE HANGING ROCK IRON REGION OF OHIO, 1916, The Lewis Publishing Co.

Ref. 10 Galloway, Willian A. T. Old Chillicothe, Shawnee and Pioneer History, 1934, The Buckeye Press, Xenia, Ohio, p. 260. (Return Ref. 10 text)

Ref. 11 Flint, Timothy, The Life and Adventures of Danial Boone, 1868, Hurst & Co. p.142. (Return Ref. 11 text)

Ref. 12 Manual of Surveying Instructions for the Survey of Public Lands of the United States and Private land Claims, Commissioner of the GHeneral land Office, 1902, Govt. Printing Office. (Return Ref. 12 text)

Ref. 13 Pattison, William D. Beginnings of the American Rectangular Land Survey System, 1784-1800, 1957, The Ohio Historical Society. (Return Ref. 13 text)

Ref. 14 Jakle, John A., Salt on the Ohio Valley Frontier, 1770-1820, American Geographical Society Journal, December ?. Accepted for publication May 23, 1968. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1967, pp 687-705. (Return Ref. 14 text)

Ref. 15 Peters, W. E., Ohio Lands and Their History, Athens, Ohio; W. E. Peters, 3rd Edition, 1930. (Return Ref. 15 text)

Ref. 16 Bond, Beverly, Jr. The Foundations of Ohio, Vol. I of History of Ohio, 1941, The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio. Reprinted by the Ohio Historical Society, 1968. (Return to Ref. 16 text)

Ref. 17 Bothwell, Charlotte E., Personal Recollections given to Henry Howe in 1874 when she was 86 years of age. Historical Collections of Ohio, Henry Howe, 1896, Wol. II, pp 733-34. The Lanning Printing Company, Norwalk, Ohio. (Return Ref. 17 text)

Ref. 18 Utter, William T., The Frontier State: 1803-1825, A History of the State of Ohio, Vol. II, 1942, The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio, Reprinted by The Ohio Historical Society, 1968. (Return Ref. 18 text)

Ref. 19 Martzloff, Clement L., Fifty Stories From Ohio History, 1917, Ohio Teachers Publishing Company. pp 133-136, "The Salt Boilers." (Return Ref. 19 text)

Ref. 20 Peattie, Roderick, Geography of Ohio, Geological Survey of Ohio, 1923, Fourth Series, Bulletin 27, Columbus, Ohio. (Return Ref. 20 text)

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